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Geographic variations in health care / Paris : OECD (2014)
Geographic variations in health care : what do we know and what can be done to improve health systems perforance? [printed text] . - Paris : OECD, 2014 . - 415 p. : ill., ; A4. - (OECD Health Policy Studies) .
ISBN : 978-92-64-21658-7 : € 135
Languages : English
W 84 Health services. Quality of health care (General)
Delivery of Health Care ; Geography ; Health Care ; Health Services Research ; statistics and numerical data [Subheading]
Abstract: Variations in health care use within a country are complicated. In some cases they may reflect differences in health needs, in patient preferences or in the diffusion of a therapeutic innovation; in others they may not. There is evidence that some of the observed variations are unwarranted, signalling under- or over-provision of health services, or both. This study documents geographic variations for high-cost and high-volume procedures in select OECD countries. It finds that there are wide variations not only across countries, but within them as well. A mix of patient preferences and physician practice styles likely play an important part in this, but what part of the observed variations reflects over-provision, or whether there are unmet needs, remain largely unexplained. This report helps policy makers better understand the issues and challenges around geographic variations in health care provision and considers the policy options. Record link: http://kce.docressources.info/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=3893
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Barcode Call number Media type Location Section Status 10273-03196 W 84 / GEO Book KCE Library (10.124) Due for return by 07/23/2017
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[article] Making health continuous : implications of different methods on the measurement of inequality [printed text] / A Lecluyse, Author ; Irina Cleemput , Author . - 2006 . - 99-104.
Languages : English
in Health Economics > 15(2006)01 [01/25/2006] . - 99-104
W 1 Serials. Periodicals
Adult ; Attitude to Health ; Belgium ; Canada ; Epidemiology ; Geography ; Humans ; Income ; Journal Article ; Longitudinal Studies ; Models, Econometric ; Peer Review ; Regression analysis ; Research Design ; Self Concept ; Social Mobility ; Socioeconomic Factors ; statistics and numerical data [Subheading] ; United States
Abstract: In most national surveys, health is measured as a categorical variable. However, in order to be able to calculate socio-economic inequalities in health, a continuous variable is needed. The recently developed interval regression approach was shown to outperform to other approaches like ordered probit. In this research we investigate the impact of using different sets of external data to estimate health inequalities: the EQ-index and the Canadian HUI. We found that the concentration index differs, but the income-related health mobility index and its decomposition are highly similar. Link for e-copy: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.vdicp.health.fgov.be:8080/doi/10.1002/hec.1015/pd [...] Format of e-copy: Wiley (IP recognition): 2005 to present Record link: http://kce.docressources.info/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=2132[article]Spatial epidemiology / Paul Elliott / Oxford ; Melbourne ; New York : Oxford University Press - OUP (2001)
Spatial epidemiology : methods and applications [printed text] / Paul Elliott, Author ; Jon Wakefield, Author ; Nicola Best, Author ; David Briggs, Author . - Oxford ; Melbourne ; New York : Oxford University Press - OUP, 2001 . - : 8 col. ill. ; 25 cm.. - (Oxford medical publications) .
ISBN : 0-19-851532-4
Languages : English
WA 950 Theory or methods of medical statistics
Cluster Analysis ; Epidemiologic Methods ; Geography
Abstract: This is a new paperback edition of the well received text Spatial Epidemiology: methods and applications. It is an easy to read, clear and concise exploration of the field of geographical variations in disease. Especially with respect to variations in environmental exposures at the small-area scale this book gives an authoritative account of current practice and developments. The recent and rapid expansion of the field looks set to continue in line with growing public, governmental and media concern about environmental and health issues, and the scientific need to understand and explain the effects of environmental pollutants on health.
Of interest to epidemiologists, public health practitioners, statisticians, geographers, environmental scientists and others concerned with understanding the geographical distribution of disease and the effects of environmental exposures on human health. It will be a valuable source for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in epidemiology, medical geography, biostatistics, environmental health and environmental science as well as a useful source of reference for health policy makers, health economists, regulators and others in the field of environmental health.
Readership: Biostatisticians, epidemiologists, geographers and pollution modellers - all those interested in spatial analysis and those concerned with understanding the geographical distribution of disease and the effects of environmental exposures on health. UG and PG courses in epidemiology, medical geography, biostatistics, environmental health and environmental science as well as a useful reference source for health policy makers, health economists and others in the field of environmental health.
Epidemiologists are primarily interested in the occurrence of disease as categorized by time, person and place. Spatial epidemiology emphasizes the latter. It is concerned both with describing and understanding variations in disease from a distinctly analytical spatial perspective and as an area of medical research it is one of growing importance. This is the first major edited book on spatial epidemiology to be published in the past decade, providing a comprehensive reference on state-of-the-art methods and applications in this rapidly expanding discipline. The contributions reflect the inter-disciplinary and international nature of the field, with practitioners from public health, epidemiology, geography, statistics and environmental sciences.
The book is organized into four sections. Section One introduces the field of spatial epidemiology and provides a thorough background on the data requirements with particular emphasis upon the problems and limitations associated with health event data and small area social statistics. The section highlights recent changes in access to spatially referenced data in the UK. Section Two contains six chapters that provide an account of stateof-the-art statistical methods for spatially modelling disease. The first chapter provides an overview of statistical methods for disease mapping and its relation to cluster detection which are then expanded upon in the rest of the section. A common theme is the use of statistical techniques to model the spatial structures inherent in small area statistical data. Statistical methodologies include geostatistical modelling for smoothing and summarizing spatial data and hierarchical modelling to account for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. These techniques have become increasingly important over the past decade and the section describes their application in detail. Section Three concerns disease mapping and clustering and links together the traditional aspects of epidemiology (mapping disease) with the sophisticated statistical techniques described in Section Two and data issues discussed in Section One. The section is particularly strong in illustrating international spatial epidemiology research. Section Four investigates the links between environmental exposure and health. Theoretical chapters are concerned with the processes and mechanisms by which human populations are exposed to environmental contaminants and how these can be measured and monitored whilst applications include traffic pollution, water quality and climate change.
Overall, the book presents a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the recent developments in spatial epidemiology. It reflects the growth in the availability of spatially referenced data, the development of spatial theory and spatial analytical methods and the increase in computing power that has enabled statistical methods, such as hierarchical modelling, to be used in practical applications. The statistical methods require a modicum of background knowledge and are not suitable for the beginner. However, for the more experienced reader the chapters provide an invaluable source of reference for practical application of spatial statistics.
Although it is an edited collection, the different chapters are consistent in style and quality with each section providing a coherent theme. The chapters also benefit from cross-referencing allowing the reader to appreciate the links between the sections. The use of technical terms means that some chapters may be more accessible than others although all of the chapters are concise and well written with high quality illustrations throughout and the book benefits from the inclusion of several coloured plates, The book should be of value to anyone who is interested in the spatial variations in disease and the effects of the environment on health. It is also a useful reference for anyone who is interested in state-of-the-art statistical spatial analytical techniques such as geographers, statisticians and environmental scientists.
Contents note: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS / LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS / SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION - HEALTH AND POPULATION DATA / 1. Spatial epidemiology: methods and applications , P. Elliott, J.C. Wakefield, N.G. Best, D.J. Briggs / 2. Health event data , A. Staines and L Jarup / 3. The use of population data in spatial epidemiology , R.A. Arnold, I.D. Diamond, J.C. Wakefield / 4. Socio-economic factors at areal level and their relationship with health , V. Carstairs / 5. Bias and confounding in spatial epidemiology , P. Elliott and J.C. Wakefield / SECTION 2 STATISTICAL METHODS / 6. Overview of statistical methods for disease mapping and its relationship to cluster detection , P.J. Diggle / 7. Bayesian approaches to disease mapping , J.C. Wakefield, N.G. Best, L. Waller / 8. Clustering, cluster detection and spatial variation in risk , J.C. Wakefield, J.E. Kelsall, S.E. Morris / 9. Assessment of disease risk in relation to a pre-specified source , S.E. Morris and J.C. Wakefield / 10. Geostatistical methods for mapping environmental exposures , N.A.C. Cressie / 11. Ecological correlation studies , S. Richardson and C. Monfort
SECTION 3 DISEASE MAPPING AND CLUSTERING / 12. Disease mapping: a historical perspective , S.D. Walter / 13. Mapping mortality data in the United States , L.W. Pickle / 14. Geographical analysis of communicable disease data , P. Atkinson and A. Molesworth / 15. Bayesian mapping of Hodgkin's disease in France , A. Mollie / 16. Investigating the genetic association between diabetes and malaria: an application of Bayesian ecological regression models with errors in covariates , L. Bernardinelli, C. Pascutto, C. Montmoli, W. Gilks / 17. Do cancers cluster? , F.E. Alexander and P. Boyle / 18. Geographical variations in childhood leukaemia incidence , J.F. Bithell and T.J. Vincent / SECTION 4 EXPOSURE DATA AND THE LINK TO HEALTH / 19. Exposure assessment , D.J. Briggs / 20. Personal exposure monitoring in environmental epidemiology , M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen / 21. Dispersion modelling , R. Colvile and D.J. Briggs / 22. Combining models of health and exposure data: the SAVIAH study , N.G. Best, K. Ickstadt, R.L. Wolpert, D.J. Briggs / 23. The role of geographical studies in risk assessment , L. Jarup / 24. Water quality and health , M. Kanarek / 25. Climate change and human health: mapping and modelling potential impacts , A.J. McMichael, P. Martens, R.S. Kovats, S. Lele / INDEX
Record link: http://kce.docressources.info/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=472
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Barcode Call number Media type Location Section Status 10273-00615 WA 950/ELL Book KCE Library (10.124) Due for return by 01/31/2015
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The Database of Online Health Statistics [electronic document] . - Alberta (Canada) : Institute of Health Economics, 2008.
Languages : English
W 26.55.I4 Information systems. Information storage and retrieval
Directory, Web ; Geography ; Health ; statistics and numerical data [Subheading]
Abstract: This database covers freely available web-based health statistics. Current focus is on Canadian and American statistics, but there is some international coverage. Because of the nature of the electronic medium, many of the statistics provided are from the last 20 years Contents note: Health Topic Areas -- Multiple Indicators -- Aboriginal Health -- Cancer -- Cardiovascular Disease -- Chronic Diseases -- Complementary and Alternative Medicine -- Diabetes -- Disabilities -- Elderly/Aging Health -- Guides and Pathfinders -- Health Economics/Healthcare Costs -- Healthcare Practitioners -- Healthcare Services -- Immunizations and Public Health -- Infectious Diseases -- Injuries -- Maternal and Child Health -- Mental Health -- Minority Health -- Nutrition, Obesity, and Body Mass -- Occupational Health -- Patient Safety/Medical Errors -- Pharmaceuticals -- Physical Activity -- Population Data -- Quality of Life -- Smoking/Drinking/Addictions -- STI/HIV/AIDS -- Vital Statistics -- Women's Health Link for e-copy: http://www.ihe.ca/publications/health-db/ Format of e-copy: Online [Open Access] Record link: http://kce.docressources.info/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=2574Thematic cartography and geovisualization / Terry A. Slocum / Upper Saddle River (N.J.) : Pearson Prentice Hall (2009)
Thematic cartography and geovisualization [printed text] / Terry A. Slocum, Author ; Robert B. McMaster, Author ; Fritz C. Kessler, Author ; Hugh H. Howard, Author . - 3rd ed. . - Upper Saddle River (N.J.) : Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009 . - 561 p. : ill. ; 29 cm. - (Prentice Hall series in geographic information science) .
ISBN : 978-0-13-229834-6 : £ 98,86
Languages : English
Geography ; Handbooks ; Maps
GA 108 Cartography
Abstract: This comprehensive text blends broad coverage of basic methods for symbolizing spatial data with an introduction to cutting-edge data visualization techniques. The authors’ balanced presentation clearly contrasts different approaches for symbolizing spatial data, in addition to individual mapping techniques. - See more at: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/pearsonhigheredus/educator/product/products_detail.page?isbn=0132298341#sthash.TnJyEbrE.dpuf Contents note: PART I -- Introduction -- 1. Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization -- 1.1 What is a Thematic Map? -- 1.2 How are Thematic Maps Used? -- 1.3 Basic Steps for Communicating Map Information -- 1.4 Consequences of Technological Change in Cartography -- 1.5 Geovisualization -- 1.6 Related Techniques -- 1.7 Cognitive Issues in Cartography -- 1.8 Social and Ethical Issues in Cartography -- 2. A Historical Perspective on Thematic Cartography -- 2.1 A Brief History of Cartography -- 2.2 History of Thematic Cartography -- 2.3 History of U.S. Academic Cartography -- 2.4 The Paradigms of American Cartography -- 3. Statistical and Graphical Foundation -- 3.1 Population and Sample -- 3.2 Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics -- 3.3 Methods for Analyzing Spatial Data, Ignoring Location -- 3.4 Numerical Summaries in Which Location Is an Integral Component -- PART II -- Principles of Cartography -- 4. Data Classification -- 4.1 Common Methods of Data Classification -- 4.2 Using Spatial Context to Simplify Choropleth Maps -- 4.3 Using Multiple Criteria to Determine Class Intervals -- 5. Principles of Symbolization -- 5.1 Nature of Geographic Phenomena -- 5.2 Levels of Measurement -- 5.3 Visual Variables -- 5.4 Comparison of Choropleth, Proportional Symbol, Isopleth, and Dot Mapping -- 5.5 Selecting Visual Variables for Choropleth Maps -- 6. Scale and Generalization -- 6.1 Geographic and Cartographic Scale -- 6.2 Definitions of Generalization -- 6.3 Models of Generalization -- 6.4 The Fundamental Operations of Generalization -- 6.5 An Example of Generalization -- 6.6 MapShaper: A Free Web-Based Generalization Service -- 7. The Earth and Its Coordinate System -- 7.1 Basic Characteristics of the Earth’s Graticule -- 7.2 A Brief History of Latitude and Longitude -- 7.3 Determining the Earth’s Size and Shape -- 8. Elements of Map Projections -- 8.1 The Map Projection Concept -- 8.2 The Reference Globe and Developable Surfaces -- 8.3 The Mathematics of Map Projections -- 8.4 Map Projection Characteristics -- 8.5 Distortion on Map Projections -- 8.6 Projection Properties -- 9. Selecting an Appropriate Map Projection -- 9.1 Potential Selection Guidelines -- 9.2 Examples of Selecting Projections -- 10. Principles of Color -- 10.1 How Color Is Processed by the Human Visual System -- 10.2 Hardware Considerations in Producing Color Maps for Graphics Displays -- 10.3 Models for Specifying Color -- 11. Map Elements and Typography -- 11.1 Alignment and Centering -- 11.2 Map Elements -- 11.3 Typography -- 12. Cartographic Design -- 12.1 Cartographic Design -- 12.2 Case Study: Real Estate Site Suitability Map -- 13. Map Reproduction -- 13.1 Reproduction Versus Dissemination -- 13.2 Planning Ahead -- 13.3 Map Editing -- 13.4 Raster Image Processing for Print Reproduction -- 13.5 Screening for Print Reproduction -- 13.6 Aspects of Color Printing -- 13.7 High-Volume Print Reproduction -- 13.8 Nonprint Reproduction and Dissemination -- PART III -- Mapping Techniques -- 14. Choropleth Mapping -- 14.1 Selecting Appropriate Data -- 14.2 Data Classification -- 14.3 Factors for Selecting a Color Scheme -- 14.4 Details of Color Specification -- 14.5 Legend Design -- 14.6 Classed Versus Unclassed Mapping -- 15. Dasymetric Mapping -- 15.1 Selecting Appropriate Data and Ancillary Information -- 15.2 Eicher and Brewer’s Work -- 15.3 Mennis and Hultgren’s Intelligent Dasymetric Mapping (IDM) -- 15.4 LandScan -- 15.5 Langford and Unwin’s Generalized Dasymetric Approach -- 16. Isarithmic Mapping -- 16.1 Selecting Appropriate Data -- 16.2 Manual Interpolation -- 16.3 Automated Interpolation for True Point Data -- 16.4 Criteria for Selecting an Interpolation Method for True Point Data -- 16.5 Limitations of Automated Interpolation Approaches -- 16.6 Tobler’s Pycnophylactic Approach: An Interpolation Method for Conceptual Point Data -- 16.7 Symbolization -- 17. Proportional Symbol and Dot Mapping -- 17.1 Selecting Appropriate Data For Proportional Symbol Maps -- 17.2 Kinds of Proportional Symbols -- 17.3 Scaling Proportional Symbols -- 17.4 Legend Design for Proportional Symbol Maps -- 17.5 Handling Overlap on Proportional Symbol Maps -- 17.6 Redundant Symbols -- 17.7 Selecting Appropriate Data for Dot Maps -- 17.8 Creating a Dot Map -- 18. Multivariate Mapping -- 18.1 Bivariate Mapping -- 18.2 Multivariate Mapping Involving Three or More Attributes -- 18.3 Cluster Analysis -- 19. Cartograms and Flow Maps -- 19.1 Cartograms -- 19.2 Flow Mapping -- Part IV -- Geovisualization -- 20. Visualizing Terrain -- 20.1 Nature of the Data -- 20.2 Vertical Views -- 20.3 Oblique Views -- 20.4 Physical Models -- 21. Map Animation -- 21.1 Early Developments -- 21.2 Visual Variables and Categories of Animation -- 21.3 Examples of Animations -- 21.4 Using 3-D Space to Display Temporal Data -- 21.5 Does Animation Work? -- 22. Data Exploration -- 22.1 Goals of Data Exploration -- 22.2 Methods of Data Exploration -- 22.3 Examples of Data Exploration Software -- 23. Visualizing Uncertainty -- 23.1 Basic Elements of Uncertainty -- 23.2 General Methods for Depicting Uncertainty -- 23.3 Visual Variables for Depicting Uncertainty -- 23.4 Applications of Visualizing Uncertainty -- 23.5 Studies of the Effectiveness of Methods for Visualizing Uncertainty -- 24. Web Mapping -- 24.1 A Brief History of Web Mapping -- 24.2 Cartographic Web Sites: A Classification -- 24.3 Tying Together the Five Continua -- 25. Virtual Environments -- 25.1 Defining Virtual and Mixed Environments -- 25.2 Technologies for Creating Virtual Environments -- 25.3 The Four “I” Factors of Virtual Environments -- 25.4 Applications of Geospatial Virtual Environments -- 25.5 Research Issues in Geospatial Virtual Environments -- 25.6 Developments in Mixed Environments -- 25.7 Health, Safety, and Social Issues -- 26. Trends in Research and Development -- 26.1 Linked Micromap Plots and Conditioned Choropleth Maps -- 26.2 Using Senses Other Than Vision to Interpret Spatial Patterns -- 26.3 Collaborative Geovisualization -- 26.4 Multimodal Interfaces -- 26.5 Information Visualization and Spatialization -- 26.6 Spatial Data Mining -- 26.7 Visual Analytics -- 26.8 Mobile Mapping and Location-Based Services -- 26.9 Keeping Pace with Recent Developments -- Appendix: Lengths of One Degree Latitude and Longitude -- Glossary -- References -- Index Record link: http://kce.docressources.info/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=3320
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Barcode Call number Media type Location Section Status 10273-02828 GA 108 / SLO Book KCE Library (10.124) Due for return by 09/28/2019
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